عنوان مقاله [English]
Undoubtedly, the dynamism of literature, like any other work of art, is dependent on the use of creative and innovative techniques, and if there is no innovation in its various branches, it will lose its appeal and effectiveness with the passage of time, and in the long run is marginalized; But this invention and innovation never means a suddenly transformation and annihilation of the past. The dialectic of this relationship is such that in the next stage, defamiliarization should take place again and this newer form should be rejected and replaced by another form. Viktor Shklovsky, the Russian formalist critic, considers this continuous cycle as the only way to keep literature alive, and in his article "Art as Preparation" he chooses the term alienation or defamiliarization for it. In his opinion, the reader when Facing the same works that he has seen several times, he feels tired and bored, and after a while, he completely abandons them; Therefore, the artist must challenge the literary works of his time by using new and innovative methods, common and conventional forms, especially at the aesthetic level, and create a new plan. But what is important is that these innovations and strangenesses sometimes help the dynamism, continuity and as a result the silence of literature, which causes its elevation, in the sense that the artist with The use of new methods and techniques will provide artistic and aesthetic taste for a wider range of readers and increase their relationship with literature, rather than simply rebelling against older genres and works. Despite the passing of a century of formalism, the achievements of this school in the investigations related to fiction literature, especially the short story genre, have not been explained as it should and perhaps the few researches that have been carried out are mostly devoted to the investigation of the novel, while the short story is due to Its small area is a suitable platform for the presentation of artistic achievements and novel and familiarizing techniques. By using these techniques, the author can, while creating a modern work, advance it in line with the poem and give it a poetic aspect. In this regard, the current research tries to analyze the different levels of coloring according to the formalists at the thematic level of the short stories of the contemporary Palestinian writer Samira Azzam, the different manifestations of creativity and composition. Analyze and explain his new researches in paying this basic element.
Although many books and articles have been written in recent decades with the content of criticism and review of the principles and basics of fiction; But the Impressive artistic and technical progress of contemporary writers in creating their stories requires a penetrating and repeated look at these works, especially from the renaissance and aesthetic aspect, that their correct and worthy explanation is not only a step towards discovering beauty hidden in this ancient literary genre; Rather, it provides the ground for familiarizing young writers with the pure techniques of story writing and its exploitation. The present research, by examining and analyzing the technical and artistic aspects of the story from the perspective of formalism as one of the literary aesthetic movements, which with the aim of promoting linguistics, reviving the literary text and the centrality of the literary text, entered the field of literature. It deals with the comparative-descriptive analysis of these aspects in the works of the contemporary Palestinian writer "Samireh Azzam" and hopes that by referring to the aesthetic approaches of this school, a small step in the direction of discovering new and innovative methods, common and conventional forms, to Especially at the aesthetic level, to challenge the literary works of his time and create a new plan.
The theme, as the only heritage and relic of the content of the story, in order to remain in the mind of the audience, needs a surprising and innovative treatment, and this is not only through the channel of artistic games and defamiliarization techniques of the author, which with the help of these tricks, make the story stand out and It is not possible to distinguish that literary genre from existing material. Undoubtedly, various environmental, social, economic, cultural, etc. variables have a significant effect on the human mind and thought and cause different moods and attitudes in human beings. Undoubtedly, various environmental, social, economic, cultural, etc. variables have a significant effect on the human mind and thought and cause different moods and attitudes in human beings. In the meantime, the changing role of gender in the formation of many of these moods and even his reactions to the surrounding events and the manner of expressing them is undeniable, and these reactions and the different manner of expression have caused some literature researchers in His literary reviews put forward the theory of "feminine style". And since fictional literature is the best literary genre to express social realities and build a world similar to the real world, it has provided this field for women to shape their special world in this format. In this regard, Samira Azzam, by combining this style and defamiliarization techniques in her short stories, has left valuable examples that will be worth examining and analyzing.
Although in many of her short stories, Samira Azzam expresses people's problems by selecting general and comprehensive topics, and the nature of these topics requires simplicity of expression in order to be truthful and believable; But this does not mean that he does not pay attention to the aspects of regeneration, imagination and artistic expression of the story; Rather, she has used all her efforts in the direction of novel and innovative themes in her stories, so that in addition to fulfilling her public mission, she can create pieces of art and give the true taste of art to fiction lovers. In this regard, she used artistic elements and puzzles such as the element of surprise, slowing down the rhythm and tempo of the story, using a combination of abandoned and familiar ways of seeing, metafictional tricks, creating mysterious characters, including one or more stories in the story. She has used dreamlike associations and in fact, with these tricks, while slowing down the process of understanding the theme or content of the story, she tastes it to the audience and keeps her mind engaged until the end of the story. she makes her own art. Also, with the combination of feminine feeling and emotion, such as the use of sensory-emotional time in the processing of character, scene, incident, etc. the use of beautiful descriptive statements, exaggerated description and feminist thoughts with some male topics and concepts, it has been able to break the idea that "characteristics of women's storytelling should be sought in the content and not in the form"; To provide a valuable tool for morphological investigations in women's literature.